Mongolia

From Children's Rights Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Alphabetical Country Selector

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Links to Country specific information:
International  Regional  National  Action  Organisations  Resources

Persistent violations
  • Prevalence of human trafficking, particularly of children, for sexual and labour exploitation [1]
  • Severe and widespread under-nourishment of children [2]
  • Growing numbers of children living on the street [3]
  • Corporal punishment is still practised in all settings [4]
  • The high number of children involved in hazardous labour [5]
  • International standards on juvenile justice are not applied [6]
Footnotes
  1. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Committee against Torture, UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
  2. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food
  3. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food
  4. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Committee against Torture
  5. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Committee against Torture
  6. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN Committee against Torture, UN Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment



Introduction

Landlocked in Central Asia and bordering both Russia and China, Mongolia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Formerly part of the Soviet sphere of influence, The country established a new constitution in 1992 and now operates as a parliamentary republic headed by a largely symbolic directly elected president and a prime minister. Major human rights issues in Mongolia include human trafficking, juvenile justice and child labour.

Geography

Mongolia is a landlocked country located between China and Russia, and sharing a border with Kazakhstan to the west. The terrain is a mixture of mountains in the north and desert in the south. The country's capital, Ulan Bator means “Red Hero”, after the country's national hero, Damdin Sükhbaatar, whose warriors helped liberate Mongolia from Chinese occupation together with the Soviet Red Army. The capital used to be itinerant, changing its location 28 times before settling in its present home in the 18th century.

Population and language

Mongolia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world with 2,701,100 inhabitants in total and a population density of 1.5 people per square km[1]. The population is largely made up of ethnic Mongols; Kazakhs and Tuvans are significant minority groups.

Inner Mongolia still belongs to China and more ethnic Mongols live in this region than in Mongolia itself.

Politics

The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan, who united the region's warring tribes in the 13th century. Following his death, the Mongol states fell under Chinese rule, achieving independence with Soviet backing in 1921. Mongolia became a parliamentary republic in 1990 after 70 years as a Soviet-style one-party State in response to a popular uprising.

Economy

An estimated 30 per cent of Mongolia's population is nomadic and lives by herding livestock. The nomadic life style is becoming increasingly hard to sustain as a result of limited fresh water supplies, urbanisation and - a vestige of Soviet times - the burning of soft coal in power plants which has caused environmental degradation.

Mongolia's main industries are the production of construction materials, mining, oil and the processing of animal products. Its main agricultural products are wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops, sheep. Mongolia also has a trove of unexploited mineral deposits and counts copper, gold, livestock, cashmere and wool among its exports.

Media and civil society

The country's media is generally able to operate freely, according to CIVICUS' Civil Society Index. The Index states that civil society organisations are growing and diverse, and women are strongly represented at leadership level. Human rights organisations however tend to be dependent on foreign funding.

Human rights and children's rights

On human rights, Mongolia announced a moratorium on the death penalty in January 2010. However, UN experts and bodies have repeatedly criticised Mongolia's prisons as cruel and inhuman. On children's rights, many UN bodies have criticised the use of children in hazardous and exploitative labour such as horse and camel racing and circus performances.

Footnotes:

  1. Hauser Global Law School Program, Globalex, "The Mongolian Legal System and Laws: a Brief Overview"

Sources:


Quick Facts

  • Population: 2,844,080 (UNDP, 2012)
  • Population under 18: 934,000 (UNICEF, 2011)
  • Number of internet users: 635,999 (20% of the population) (Internet World Stats, 2012)
  • Human Development Index ranking: 108 (UNDP, 2012)