San Marino

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Persistent violations
  • Discrimination against children on the basis of nationality[1]
  • Discrimination against children based on the marital status of their parents[2]
  • Corporal punishment[3]
  • Violence against children[4]
  • Incompatibility of ius commune with children's rights standards[5]
  • lack of training for professionals working with children[6]

For more details go here

Footnotes
  1. UN Human Rights Committee, Universal Periodic Review
  2. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Universal Periodic Review
  3. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Universal Periodic Review
  4. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Universal Periodic Review
  5. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Universal Periodic Review
  6. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Universal Periodic Review



Introduction

One of the world’s smallest States, San Marino is landlocked in central Italy. It has traditionally been seen as a tax haven, though the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has now removed the State from its blacklist of tax havens, following the State's guarantee of greater transparency in its banking and taxation. Discriminatory legal provisions against children still persist, including in relation to inheritance of nationality and discrimination against children based on the marital status of their parents.

Geography

The Republic of San Marino, one of the world's smallest countries, is a 61 square kilometre enclave located within the Appennine Mountain range on the Italian peninsula. The capital city is San Marino.

Population and language

The Republic is home to less than 32,000 people,[1] though as many as 3 million tourists visit the country every year. The majority of the population is Roman Catholic and Italian is almost universally spoken.

History and politics

San Marino is said to be the oldest surviving republic in the world, its geographic isolation allowed it to survive as a city state throughout the wars on the Italian peninsula. During the process of Italian unification, San Marino signed a cooperation treaty with Garibaldi which ensured Sammarinese independence from the newly forming Italy. The national parliament takes the form of the Great and General Council, which is elected every five years and led by two captains-regent who are elected every six months to act as joint heads of State. The Great and General Council in turn elects the Congress of State, which exercises executive power.

Economy

Tourism contributes significantly to San Marino's economy, between 2 and 3 million tourists visit the country every year. The country has traditionally been seen as a tax haven, though the OECD removed the State from its blacklist of tax havens in 2002, following the State's signature of a treaty to institute greater transparency in its banking and taxation. In recent years, the country has taken steps to develop its financial services industry including through the establishment of a central bank with supervisory power and new regulations on fund management.[2]

Media and civil society

La Tribuna Sammarinese is the country's major daily news publication and SanMarinoNotizie provides online news. The country also has a State run radio and TV network, San Marino RTV.

Human rights and children's rights

San Marino has been criticised by the UN human rights mechanisms for discriminatory provisions in its national laws affecting children, particularly with regards to the inheritance of nationality and the persistence of provisions that discriminate against children based on the marital status of their parents.[3]

  1. UNDESA, "Population Statistics 2011"
  2. The Economist, "Offshore, onshore: Maximising a mini-republic" 8 May 2007
  3. CRIN, "San Marino: Persistent violations of children's rights"

Sources:


Quick Facts

  • Population: 31,900 (UNDP, 2012)
  • Population under 18: 6,000 (UNICEF, 2011)
  • Number of internet users: 17,000 (53.4% of the population) (Internet World Stats, 2009)
  • Human Development Index ranking: N/A (UNDP, 2012)
  • Happy Planet Index ranking: N/A